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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is an emergency procedure performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest. It is indicated in those who are unresponsive with no breathing or abnormal breathing.CPR involves chest compressions at least 5 cm (2 in) deep and at a rate of at least 100 per minute in an effort to create artificial circulation by manually pumping blood through the heart and thus the body. The rescuer may also provide breaths by either exhaling into the subject’s mouth or nose or using a device that pushes air into the subject’s lungs. This process of externally providing ventilation is termed artificial respiration. A simplified Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) method involving chest compressions only is recommended for untrained rescuers.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Prone position Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Simultaneous maintenance of blood circulation and ventilation can be obtained by compressing the back if the victim is in prone position, by turning the head to the side and compressing the back. Due to the head’s being turned, the risk of vomiting and complications caused by aspiration pneumonia is significantly reduced, and the method means the patient continues to get air into their lungs without the need for mouth-to-mouth respiration.

CPR in Pregnancy

During pregnancy when a woman is lying on her back, the uterus may compress the inferior vena cava and thus decrease venous return.It is therefore recommended that the uterus be pushed to the woman’s left; if this is not effective, either roll the woman 30° or healthcare professionals should consider emergency Caesarean section.

Action of CPR

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)serves as the foundation of successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, preserving the body for defibrillation and advanced life support. Even in the case of a “non-shockable” rhythm, such as Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA) where defibrillation is not indicated, effective CPR is no less important. Used alone, CPR will result in few complete recoveries, though the outcome without CPR is almost uniformly fatal.Immediate CPR followed by defibrillation within 3–5 minutes of sudden VF cardiac arrest dramatically improves survival. In cities such as Seattle where CPR training is widespread and defibrillation by EMS personnel follows quickly, the survival rate is about 20 percent for all causes and as high as 57 percent if a witnessed “shockable” arrest.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in infants

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in infants

Compression-only CPR may be less effective in children than in adults, as cardiac arrest in children is more likely to have a non-cardiac cause

Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) requires attention to 4 areas

1. Immediate diagnosis

2. Ventilation

3. Cardiac massage

4. Re-establishment of heart rhythm.

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